Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india Reality television
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Reality television has Emma watson and tom felton dating 2015 since its rise in popularity. Much of the criticism has centered on the use of the word "reality", and such shows' attempt to present themselves as a straightforward recounting of events that have occurred. Critics have argued that reality television shows do not accurately reflect reality, in ways both implicit (participants being placed in artificial situations), and deceptive or even fraudulent, such as misleading editing, participants being coached in what to say or how to behave, storylines generated ahead of time, and scenes being staged or re-staged for the cameras. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants (particularly on competition shows); that they make stars out of either untalented people unworthy of fame, infamous personalities, or both; and that they glamorize vulgarity and materialism. Professional Free dating chat and friend cameroon sites have expressed concern about the popularity of a genre which does not require scriptwriting.
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Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india History Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are almost as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host 's , in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with a hidden camera, first aired in 1948, and is often seen as a prototype of reality television programming.
Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. (1945–1964) was an early example of reality-based television. The 1946 television game show sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, 's show (based on his previous 1947 radio show, Candid Microphone) broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks. In 1948, talent search shows and featured amateur competitors and audience voting.
In the 1950s, game shows and involved contestants in wacky competitions, stunts, and practical jokes. was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds.
The radio series Nightwatch (1951–1955) tape-recorded the daily activities of , police officers. The series (1950–1959) incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers.
First broadcast in the in 1964, the documentary , broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life. Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the , episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.; it is still ongoing. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities.
The first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series , which ran from 1965 to 1986 on in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, and sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, fishing, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, and the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration.
Another precursor may be considered Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom which aired from 1963 through 1988. This show featured zoologist Marlin Perhins traveling across the globe and illustrating the wide variety of animal life on the planet. Though mostly a travelogue, it was popular in syndication and new episodes were produced through the eighties.
In the 1966 film , filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the Guide to Film 2007 stated that the film was "to blame for reality television".
The 12-part 1973 series showed a (filmed in 1971) going through a divorce; unlike many later reality shows, it was more or less documentary in purpose and style. In 1974 a counterpart program, , was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of . Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of : , and , all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition. In 1978, recreated life in an English village.
Producer capitalized on the advent of videotape to create , a surprise hit for NBC, which ran from 1979 to 1984. The success of Real People was quickly copied by ABC with , a stunt show co-hosted by . The series , a fantasies-fulfilled reality show, originally ran from 1982 to 1988 and was revived from 2001 to 2003.
In 1985, underwater cinematographer Al Giddings teamed with former on the NBC series Oceanquest, which chronicled Weatherly's adventures scuba diving in various exotic locales. Weatherly was nominated for an for Outstanding Achievement in informational programming.
, which first aired in the spring of 1989 on and came about partly due to the need for new programming during the , showed police officers on duty apprehending criminals; it introduced the look and feel of much of later reality television.
The series , which aired on television in 1991, originated the concept of putting strangers together in the same environment for an extended period of time and recording the drama that ensued. Nummer 28 also pioneered many of the stylistic conventions that have since become standard in reality television shows, including a heavy use of soundtrack music and the interspersing of events on screen with after-the-fact "confessionals" recorded by cast members, that serve as narration. One year later, the same concept was used by MTV in its new series . Nummer 28 creator Erik Latour has long claimed that The Real World was directly inspired by his show; however, the producers of The Real World have stated that their direct inspiration was An American Family.
According to television commentator , this type of reality television was enabled by the advent of computer-based for video (such as produced by ) in 1989. These systems made it easy to quickly edit hours of video footage into a usable form, something that had been very difficult to do before (film, which was easy to edit, was too expensive to shoot enough hours of footage with on a regular basis).
The series , created by television producer Charlie Parsons, which first aired in 1997 in (and was later produced in a large number of other countries as ), added to the Nummer 28/Real World template the idea of competition and elimination, in which cast members/contestants battled against each other and were removed from the show until only one winner remained (these shows are now sometimes called elimination shows).
, a program that began in 1996, showed couples redecorating each other's houses, and was the first reality show with a or theme.
The dating reality show premiered in the UK in 1998. Originally created by as , it was a flop in the United States; however, the show was revamped in the UK by and became a cult hit. The production team from the original series went on to create popular reality shows , and the revamped , amongst others.
The 1980s and 1990s were also a time when came to rise, many of which featured the same types of unusual or dysfunctional guests who would later become popular as cast members of reality shows.
Reality television saw an explosion of global popularity in the late 1990s and early 2000s, with the successes of the and Survivor/Expedition Robinson franchises.
In the United States, reality television programs experienced a temporary decline in viewership in 2001, leading some entertainment industry columnists to speculate that the genre was a temporary fad that had run its course. Reality shows that suffered from low ratings included (although the show has since recovered and is in its 27th edition), (unrelated to the better-known ) and (which was successful in other countries).
However, this proved not to be the case for stronghold shows Survivor and , which both topped the U.S. season-average television ratings in the 2000s: Survivor led the ratings in , and Idol has the longest hold on the No. 1 rank in the , dominating over all other primetime programs and other television series in the overall viewership tallies for eight consecutive years, from the to the television seasons.
Internationally, a number of shows created in the late 1990s and 2000s have had massive global success. At least ten reality-television franchises created during that time have had over 30 international adaptations each: the singing competition franchises , and , other competition franchises Survivor/Expedition Robinson, Big Brother, , , and , and the investment franchise . Several "" from the same period have had even greater success, including , and , with over 50 international adaptions each. (All but two of these franchises, Top Model and Dragons' Den, were created by either producers or the Dutch production company ; and even Dragons' Den, which originated in , has had most adaptations be based on the British version.)
In India, the competition show was the most popular television program for its first six seasons.
The 2000s saw the launches of three television channels devoted exclusively to reality television: in the United States, which existed from 2005 to 2010; in , which lasted two years from 2010 to 2012; and in the United Kingdom, which operated from 2002 to 2009. In addition, several other , including , , , , , and , changed their programming to mostly comprise reality television series during the 2000s.
During the early part of the 2000s, network executives expressed concern that reality-television programming was limited in its appeal for DVD reissue and . DVDs for reality shows in fact sold briskly; , , and all ranked in the top DVDs sold on , and in the mid-2000s, DVDs of outranked scripted shows like and . Syndication, however, has indeed proven problematic; shows such as , COPS and Wife Swap in which each episode is self-contained, can indeed be rerun fairly easily, but usually only on cable television and/or during the daytime (COPS and being exceptions). Season-long competitions such as , and generally perform more poorly and usually must be rerun in to draw the necessary viewers to make it worthwhile (even in these cases, it is not always successful: the first ten seasons of were picked up by in 2012 and was run in marathon format, but experienced very poor ratings). Another option is to create documentaries around series including extended interviews with the participants and outtakes not seen in the original airings; the syndicated series is an example of this strategy.
COPS has had huge success in syndication, direct response sales and DVD. A Fox staple since 1989, COPS has, as of 2013 (when it moved to cable channel ), outlasted all competing scripted police shows. Another series that has seen wide success is , which has been running since 2000 in the U.S. and is syndicated in over 100 countries worldwide.
In 2001, the added the reality genre to the in the category of . In 2003, to better differentiate between competition and informational reality programs, a second category, , was added. In 2008, a third category, , was added.
In 2007, the appeared; it was a competition show based in part on , and was billed as the world's first Internet reality show.
In 2010, became the first reality television show aired over a video game console.
By 2012, many of the long-running reality television show franchises in the United States, such as American Idol, Dancing with the Stars and , had begun to see declining ratings. However, reality television as a whole remained durable in the U.S., with hundreds of shows across many channels. In 2012 Magazine's Vulture blog published a humorous showing popular themes across American reality shows then running, including shows set in the U.S. states of , and , shows about cakes, weddings and , and shows, usually competition-based, whose title includes the word "Wars".
, a singing competition franchise created by that started in 2010, is the newest highly successful reality television franchise, with almost 50 international adaptations.
, a reality series featuring the Robertson family that founded , in 2013 became the most popular reality series in U.S. cable television history. Its fourth season premiere was viewed by nearly 12 million viewers in the United States, most of which were in rural markets; its rural audience share has ranked in the 30s, an extremely high number for any series, broadcast or cable.
In 2014, and again noted a stagnation in reality television programs' ratings in the U.S., which they attributed to "The diminishing returns of cable TV's sea of reality sameness". They noted that a number of networks that featured reality programming, including Bravo and E!, were launching their first scripted shows, and others, including , were abandoning plans to launch further reality programs; though they clarified that the genre as a whole "isn't going anywhere."
Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india Subgenres Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The genre of reality television consists of various subgenres. There are eight subgenres of reality television as proposed by Murray and Ouellette (2009). These subgenres are: gamedocs, dating programs, makeover programs, docusoaps, talent contests, court programs, reality sitcoms, and celebrity variations of other programs.
Others such as Hill, Weibull, and Nilsson (2007, p. 18) suggest that five subgenres or categories exist. They suggest the following: infotainment, docusoap, lifestyle, reality game shows, and lifestyle experiment programs as main categories of reality TV. Nabi et al. (2006, p. 433) on the other hand, proposed a categorization based on six main topics: romance, crime, informational, reality-drama, competition/game, and talent. Similarly, Fitzgerald (2003) proposed a similar categorization focusing on talent and survival competitions, personal makeover, home makeover, get-rich-quick schemes, docudramas, and "Mr. Right" programs.
Still others suggest that categorization can be determined by either narrative or performation reality. Narrative reality television is based on "entertaining the viewers by an authentic or staged rendition of extraordinary, real, or close-to-reality events with non-prominent actors, whereas formats providing a stage for uncommon performances with a direct impact on the participants' lives fall into the category of performative reality TV." From the perspective of Klaus and Lucke,"docusoaps" portray people in their usual living environment and "reality soaps" bring them in a new, uncommon environment."
A variety of what could be called "adventure" reality television places people in wild and challenging natural settings. The genre includes such shows as , , , and .
In many reality television programs, camera shooting and footage editing give the viewer the impression that they are passive observers following people going about their daily personal and professional activities; this style of filming is sometimes referred to as or . Story "plots" are often constructed via editing or planned situations, with the results resembling – hence the terms docusoap and . give viewers a private look into the lives of the subjects.
Within documentary-style reality television are several subcategories or variants:
- Special living environment
- Some documentary-style programs place cast members, who in most cases previously did not know each other, in artificial living environments; is the originator of this style. In almost every other such show, cast members are given specific challenges or obstacles to overcome. , which started in 1995 as a spin-off of The Real World, started this pattern: the cast traveled across the country guided by clues and performing tasks.
- is probably the best known program of this type in the world, with around 50 international versions having been produced. Other shows in this category, such , involve , with cast members living and working as people of a specific time and place. 2001's achieved some notoriety by placing several couples on an island surrounded by single people in order to test the couples' commitment to each other. combined the "special living environment" format with the "professional activity" format noted below; in addition to living together in a , each member of the show's cast was hired to host a television program for a Canadian cable channel.
- Soap-opera style
- Although the term "docusoap" has been used for many documentary-style reality television shows, there have been shows that have deliberately tried to mimic the appearance and structure of soap operas. Such shows often focus on a close-knit group of people and their shifting friendships and romantic relationships. One highly influential such series was the American 2004–2006 series , which attempted to specifically mimic the primetime soap opera , which had begun airing in 2003. Laguna Beach had a more cinematic feel than any previous reality television show, through the use of higher-quality lighting and cameras, voice-over narration instead of on-screen "confessionals", and slower pacing. Laguna Beach led to several spinoff series, most notably the 2006–2010 series . It also inspired various other series, including the highly successful British series and , and the Australian series .
- Due to their cinematic feel, many of these shows have been accused of being pre-scripted, more so than other reality television shows have. The producers of The Only Way Is Essex and Made in Chelsea have admitted to coaching cast members on what to say in order to draw more emotion from each scene, although they insist that the underlying stories are real.
- Another highly successful group of soap-opera-style shows is the franchise, which began with in 2006 and has since spawned nearly twenty other series, in the U.S. and internationally. The franchise has an older cast and different personal dynamics than that of Laguna Beach and its imitators, as well as lower production values, but similarly is meant to resemble scripted soap operas – in this case, the television series and .
- A notable subset of such series focus on a group of women who are romantically connected to male celebrities; these include (2010), (2011) and (2012).
- Another subset of fly-on-the-wall-style shows involves celebrities. Often these show a celebrity going about their everyday life: notable examples include , , , , and . In other shows, celebrities are put on location and given a specific task or tasks; these include , and . in the mid-2000s had an entire block of such shows, known as "Celebreality". Shows such as these are often created with the idea of promoting a celebrity product or upcoming project.
- Professional activities
- Some documentary-style shows portray professionals either going about day-to-day business or performing an entire project over the course of a series. One early example (and the longest running reality show of any genre) is , which has been airing since 1989.
- Other examples of this type of reality show include the American shows , , , , , and ; the British shows , and ; the Australian shows and , and the New Zealand show . U.S. cable networks TLC and A&E in particular show a number of reality shows of this type.
- 's 2001 show was a notable early hybrid, in that the show featured four touring and making music as a professional activity, but also pitted the bands against one another in game show fashion to see which band could make the most money.
- Some documentary-style shows shed light on cultures and lifestyles rarely seen otherwise by most of their viewers. One example is shows about or people who have unusual physical circumstances, such as the American series and , and the British programmes , and .
- Another example is shows that portray the lives of ethnic or religious minorities. Examples include ( ), (affluent ), (polygamists from a splinter group), and (the ), and ().
- The Real Housewives franchise offers a window into the lives of social-striving urban and suburban housewives. Many shows focus on wealth and , including , and , which documented huge celebrations thrown by wealthy parents. Conversely, the highly successful and Duck Dynasty are set in poorer rural areas of the .
Reality legal programming
Another subgenre of reality television is "reality legal programming." These are programs that center on real-life legal matters.
- Originally, court shows were all dramatized and staged programs with playing the litigants, witnesses and lawyers. The cases were either reenactments of real-life cases or cases that were fictionalized altogether. Among examples of stage courtroom dramas are , , and the first two eras of . revolutionized the genre by introducing the format in 1981, later adopted by the vast majority of court shows. The genre experienced a lull in programming after The People's Court was cancelled in 1993, but then soared after the emergence of in 1996. This led to the debuts of a slew of other reality court shows, such as , , , and .
- Though the litigants are legitimate, the "judges" in such shows are actually arbitrators, as these pseudo-judges are not actually presiding in a . Typically, however, they are retired judges, or at least individuals who have had some legal experience.
- Courtroom programs are typically shows that air on weekdays.
Law enforcement documentaries
- Another subgenre of reality legal programming are law enforcement documentaries. Law enforcement documentaries are programs that capture police officers on duty. These shows tend to be shocking in nature as they consist of individuals caught in real-life criminal acts and circumstances, as well as confrontations with police officers. The most successful installment of this subgenre is .
Reality competition/game shows
|This section needs additional citations for . (May 2009) ()|
- See also:
Another subgenre of reality television is "reality competition", "reality ", or so-called "reality game shows," which follow the format of non-tournament contests. Typically, participants are filmed competing to win a prize, often while living together in a confined environment. In many cases, participants are removed until only one person or team remains, who is then declared the winner. Usually this is done by eliminating participants one at a time (or sometimes two at a time, as an episodic twist due to the number of contestants involved and the length of a given season), through either or by voting for the most popular to win. Voting is done by the viewing audience, the show's own participants, a panel of judges, or some combination of the three.
A well-known example of a reality-competition show is the globally syndicated Big Brother, in which cast members live together in the same house, with participants removed at regular intervals by either the viewing audience or, in the American version, by the participants themselves.
There remains disagreement over whether talent-search shows such as the Idol series, the Got Talent series and the Dancing with the Stars series are truly reality television, or just newer incarnations of shows such as . Although the shows involve a traditional talent search, the shows follow the reality-competition conventions of removing one or more contestants in every episode, allowing the public to vote on who is removed, and interspersing performances with video clips showing the contestants' "back stories", their thoughts about the competition, their rehearsals and unguarded behind-the-scenes moments. Additionally, there is a good deal of unscripted interaction shown between contestants and judges. The American have nominated both American Idol and Dancing with the Stars for the Emmy.
Game shows like Weakest Link, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, and Deal or No Deal, which were popular in the 2000s, also lie in a gray area: like traditional game shows (e.g., , ), the action takes place in an enclosed television studio over a short period of time; however, they have higher production values, more dramatic background music, and higher stakes than traditional shows (done either through putting contestants into physical danger or offering large cash prizes). In addition, there is more interaction between contestants and hosts, and in some cases they feature reality-style contestant competition and/or elimination as well. These factors, as well as these shows' rise in global popularity at the same time as the arrival of the reality craze, have led to such shows often being grouped under both the reality television and game show umbrellas.
There have been various hybrid reality-competition shows, like the worldwide-syndicated Star Academy, which combines the Big Brother and Idol formats, , which combines competition with the self-improvement format, and , which uses the Idol format for products instead of people. Some reality shows that aired mostly during the early 2000s, such as , and , devoted the first part of the season to selecting a winner, and the second part to showing that person or group of people working on a project.
Popular variants of the competition-based format include the following:
- Dating-based competition
- Dating-based competition shows follow a contestant choosing one out of a group of suitors. Over the course of either a single episode or an entire season, suitors are eliminated until only the contestant and the final suitor remains. In the early 2000s, this type of reality show dominated the other genres on the major U.S. networks. Shows that aired included The Bachelor, its spin-off , as well as Temptation Island and . In , contestants were chosen by viewer voting. More recent such shows include (a dating show featuring rapper that led directly and indirectly to over 10 spinoffs), and . This is one of the older variants of the format; shows such as that date to the 1960s had similar premises (though each episode was self-contained, and not the serial format of more modern shows).
- Job search
- In this category, the competition revolves around a skill that contestants were pre-screened for. Competitors perform a variety of tasks based on that skill, are judged, and are then kept or removed by a single expert or a panel of experts. The show is usually presented as a job search of some kind, in which the prize for the winner includes a contract to perform that kind of work and an undisclosed salary, although the award can simply be a sum of money and ancillary prizes, like a cover article in a magazine. The show also features judges who act as counselors, mediators and sometimes mentors to help contestants develop their skills further or perhaps decide their future position in the competition. Popstars, which debuted in 1999, may have been the first such show, while the Idol series has been the longest-running and, for most of its run, the most popular such franchise. The first job-search show which showed dramatic, unscripted situations may have been , which premiered in May 2003. Other examples include (which judges business skills); , MasterChef and (for chefs); (for hair styling), (for clothing design), (for interior design), (for fashion editors), (for comedians), (for child performers), (for filmmakers), (for drag queens), (for fashion photographers), (for dancers), and (for television hosts), (for sportscasters), (for aspiring politicians), (for artists), (for makeup artists), and (for tattoo artists), (for songwriters) and (for game testers).
- A notable subset is shows in which the winner gets a specific part a known film, television show, or performing group. Examples include (where the prize is a role in the film series), (for a role on the television show ) and (the lead role in a revival of the musical ). The most extreme prize for such a show may have been for 2005's , where the winner became the lead singer of the rock band . , who won the show, went on to be INXS's lead singer until 2011.
- Some shows use the same format with celebrities: in this case, there is no expectation that the winner will continue this line of work, and prize winnings often go to charity. The most popular such shows have been the Dancing with the Stars and franchises. Other examples of celebrity competition programs include , and .
- Most of these programs create a sporting competition among athletes attempting to establish their name in that sport. , in 2002, was one of the first shows to immerse sport with reality television, based on a fabricated club competing against real clubs in the sport of ; the audience helped select which players played each week by voting for their favorites. Golf Channel's is a reality show in which aspiring golfers compete against one another and are eliminated. , a show, became the first American reality show in which a contestant committed after being eliminated from the show; the show's winner was promised a shot at a boxing world championship. , who won, indeed got his title shot and became a world champion boxer. In , participants have voluntarily withdrawn or expressed the desire to withdraw from the show due to competitive pressure.
- In sports shows, sometimes just appearing on the show, not necessarily winning, can get a contestant the job. The owner of UFC declared that the final match of the first season of Ultimate Fighter was so good, both contestants were offered a contract, and in addition, many non-winning "TUF Alumni" have prospered in the UFC. Many of the losers from 's and shows have been picked up by the company.
- Not all sports programs involve athletes trying to make a name in the sport. The 2006 U.S. reality series focused on students at vying for a (non-) roster position on under legendary coach . In the Republic of Ireland, 's involves eight non-sporting Irish celebrities becoming bainisteoiri () of mid-level teams, leading their teams in an tournament.
One concept pioneered by, and unique to, reality competition shows is the idea of immunity, in which a contestant can win the right to be exempt the next time contestants are eliminated from the show. Possibly the first instance of immunity in reality TV was on the U.S. version of , which premiered in 2000. On that show, there are complex rules around immunity: a player can achieve it by winning challenges (either as a team in the tribal phase or individually in the merged phase), or, in more recent seasons, through finding . They can keep their immunity a secret from other players, and they can also pass on their immunity to someone else.
On most shows, immunity is quite a bit simpler: it is usually achieved by winning a task, often a relatively minor task during the first half of the episode; the announcement of immunity is made publicly and immunity is usually non-transferable. Competition shows that feature immunity include the Apprentice, Big Brother, Biggest Loser, Top Model and Top Chef franchises. In one Apprentice episode, a participant chose to waive his earned immunity and was immediately "fired" by for giving up this powerful asset.
Another common characteristic of reality competition shows is the presence of a confession room, or confessional interviews, wherein contestants "confess" details of their strategy/gameplay or their concerns and struggles on the show. These segments are usually filmed after episodes or a season.
Some reality television shows cover a person or group of people improving their lives. Sometimes the same group of people are covered over an entire season (as in and ), but usually there is a new target for improvement in each episode. Despite differences in the content, the format is usually the same: first the show introduces the subjects in their current, less-than-ideal environment. Then the subjects meet with a group of experts, who give the subjects instructions on how to improve things; they offer aid and encouragement along the way. Finally, the subjects are placed back in their environment and they, along with their friends and family and the experts, appraise the changes that have occurred. Other self-improvement or makeover shows include The Biggest Loser, and (which covers weight loss), (entire physical appearance), , and (style and grooming), (child-rearing), (life transformation), and (fashion and cosmetic makeover and marriage), (relationship building) and and (self-improvement and manners). The British programme takes participants who usually have a wild dress sense or wear excess make-up and "fakery" and makes them look more presentable.
Some shows make over part or all of a person's living space, work space, or vehicle. The American series This Old House, which debuted in 1979, features the start-to-finish renovation of different houses through a season; media critic has speculated that it is "the original reality TV show." The British show , beginning in 1996 (later remade in the U.S. as ) was the first such renovation show that added a game show feel with different weekly contestants. Other shows in this category include , , , and . and show vehicles being rebuilt. Some shows, such as and , show both the decor and the menu of a failing restaurant being remade.
The issue of "making over" was taken to its social extreme with the British show , in which people who had become hoarders, even living in squalor, were given professional assistance. The American television series and follow similar premises, presenting interventions in the lives of people who suffer from .
Financial transactions and appraisals
Another subset of reality TV shows focuses on haggling and financial transactions, often over unique or rare items whose value must first be appraised. Two such shows, both of which have led to multiple spinoff shows, are and . Other shows, while based around such financial transactions, also show elements of its main cast members' personal and professional lives; these shows include and .
Such shows have some antecedent in the British series , which began airing in 1979 and has since spawned numerous international versions, although that show includes only appraisals and does not include bargaining or other dramatic elements.
The globally syndicated format involves financial transactions with much higher amounts, showing a group of wealthy investors choosing whether or not to invest in a series of pitched startup companies. The series similarly involves investors, but involves more of a game show element in which restaurant owners compete to prove their worth.
The British series offers a twist in which artworks' artistic value, rather than their financial value, is appraised by a panel of judges, who determine whether each one will be featured at an exhibition.
Another type of reality program is the that produces drama, conflict, and sometimes transformation. British TV series , which began in 2003, and has had many spinoffs in the UK and other countries, is a notable example. In the show, people with different values agree to live by each other's social rules for a brief period of time. Other shows in this category include , and . was a series where people had to learn a new skill and pass themselves off as experts in that skill. was a controversial 2004 UK series in which contestants competed for how long they could go . was a controversial 2006-2010 series that isolated contestants for weeks in pods with limited sleep, food and information while competing in elimination challenges ended by a quit button, causing winners to go on for much longer than needed as a blind gamble to not be the first person to quit.
Another type of reality programming features rolling when random passers-by encounter a staged situation. Candid Camera, which first aired on television in 1948, pioneered the format. Modern variants of this type of production include , , , and . The series and are hidden-camera programs in which the goal is to frighten contestants rather than just befuddle or amuse them.
Not all hidden camera shows use strictly staged situations. For example, the syndicated program Cheaters purports to use hidden cameras to record suspected partners, although the authenticity of the show has been questioned, and even refuted by some who have been featured on the series. Once the evidence has been gathered, the accuser confronts the cheating partner with the assistance of the host. In many special-living documentary programs, hidden cameras are set up all over the residence in order to capture moments missed by the regular camera crew, or intimate bedroom footage.
Supernatural and paranormal
Supernatural and reality shows such as , place participants into frightening situations which ostensibly involve the . In series such as , the stated aim is investigation, and some series like challenge participants to survive the investigation; whereas others such as and use a recurring crew of . In general, the shows follow similar stylized patterns of , surveillance, and hand held camera footage; odd angles; subtitles establishing place and time; desaturated imagery; and non-melodic soundtracks.
Noting the trend in reality shows that take the paranormal at face value, culture editor Mike Hale characterized shows as "pure theater" and compared the genre to or for its formulaic, teasing approach.
In hoax reality shows, a is presented to some of the series participants; the rest of the cast may contain actors who are in on the joke. These shows often served to parody the conventions of the reality television genre. The first such show was the 2003 American series . Other examples are (modeled after The Apprentice), , (modeled after ), (modeled after American Idol), (modeled after Big Brother), (which convinced the hoax targets that they were being flown into space), (in which a town was convinced that was filming a movie there) and Reality Hell (which featured a different target and premise every episode).
Other hoax shows are not intended for comedic affect and do not include actors. In some shows, a person of wealth and/or power has their identity disguised so that they can go among less-privileged people in order to see them in their natural state and judge their worthiness for largesse; the other participants are not told the true nature of the show during filming. Popular examples include (though that show is also intended to let bosses see their business more accurately) and .
Other shows, though not hoax shows per se, have offered misleading information to some cast members in order to add a wrinkle to the competition. Examples include and .
Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india Criticism and analysis Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Reality" as misnomer
The authenticity of reality television is often called into question by its detractors. The genre's title of "reality" is often criticized as being inaccurate because of claims that the genre frequently includes elements such as premeditated scripting, acting, urgings from behind-the-scenes crew to create specified situations of adversity and drama and misleading editing. It has often been described as "scripting without paper".
In many cases, the entire premise of the show is a contrived one, based around a competition or another unusual situation. However, various shows have additionally been accused of using fakery in order to create more compelling television, such as having premeditated storylines and in some cases feeding participants lines of dialogue, focusing only on participants' most outlandish behavior, and altering events through editing and re-shoots.
Television shows that have been notably accused of, or admitted to, deception include The Real World, the U.S. version of , Joe Millionaire, The Hills, Hell's Kitchen, , Hogan Knows Best, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, The Bachelor and The Bachelorette, , and Keeping Up with the Kardashians.
Political and cultural impact
Reality television's global successes has been, in the eyes of some analysts, an important political phenomenon. In some countries, reality television voting has been the first time many citizens have voted in any free and fair wide-scale elections. In addition, the frankness of the settings on some reality shows present situations that are often taboo in certain orthodox cultures, like , which began airing in 2003, and which shows male and female contestants living together. A Pan-Arab version of Big Brother was cancelled in 2004 after less than two weeks on the air after a public outcry and street protests. In 2004, journalist , noting both of these issues, wrote that "the best hope of little Americas developing in the Middle East could be Arab-produced reality TV."
In 2007, began airing , a show featuring -style voting and elimination, but for the writing and oration of . The show became popular in Arab countries, with around 18 million viewers, partly because it was able to combine the excitement of reality television with a traditional, culturally relevant topic. In April 2010, however, the show also become a subject of political controversy, when , a 43-year-old female competitor, read out a poem criticizing her country's Muslim clerics. Hilal's poetry was well received by both critics and the public; she received the highest scores from the judges throughout the competition, and came in third place overall.
In , in the summer of 2007, coverage of the third season of focused on the breaking down of cultural and socioeconomic barriers as the public rallied around the show's top two contestants.
The singing competition (a local imitation of Pop Idol) has similarly been cited for its political and cultural impact. After the finale of the show's 2005 season drew an audience of around 400 million people, and eight million votes, the state-run English-language newspaper ran the front-page headline "Is Super Girl a Force for Democracy?" The Chinese government criticized the show, citing both its democratic nature and its excessive vulgarity, or "worldliness", and in 2006 banned it outright. It was later reintroduced in 2009, before being banned again in 2011. Super Girl has also been criticized by non-government commentators for creating seemingly impossible ideals that may be harmful to Chinese youth.
In , reality television shows have surpassed soap operas as the most-watched programs on the air. One popular program is Jika Aku Menjadi ("If I Were"), which follows young, middle-class people as they are temporarily placed into lower-class life, where they learn to appreciate their circumstances back home by experiencing daily life for the less fortunate. Critics have claimed that this and similar programs in Indonesia reinforce traditionally Western ideals of materialism and consumerism. However, Eko Nugroho, reality show producer and president of Dreamlight World Media, insists that these reality shows are not promoting American lifestyles but rather reaching people through their universal desires.
As a substitute for scripted drama
Reality television generally costs less to produce than scripted series.
VH1 executive vice president Michael Hirschorn wrote in 2007 that the plots and subject matters on reality television are more authentic and more engaging than in scripted dramas, writing that scripted network television "remains dominated by variants on the ... in which a stock group of characters (ethnically, sexually, and generationally diverse) grapples with endless versions of the same dilemma. The episodes have all the ritual predictability of Japanese theater," while reality television is "the liveliest genre on the set right now. It has engaged hot-button cultural issues – class, sex, race – that respectable television... rarely touches."
wrote that reality shows like Deadliest Catch and showcase working-class people of the kind that "used to be routine" on scripted network television, but that became a rarity in the 2000s: "The better to woo upscale viewers, TV has evicted its mechanics and dockworkers to collect higher rents from yuppies in coffeehouses."
Reality television has the potential to turn its participants into national , at least for a short period. This is most notable in talent-search programs such as Idol and The X Factor, which have spawned music stars in many of the countries in which they have aired. Many other shows, however, have made at least temporary celebrities out of their participants; some participants have then been able to parlay this fame into media and merchandising careers. For example, , a contestant on , later became a host on daytime talk show and a correspondent on . (from ), (from ) and (from ) all have had acting careers since appearing on reality television. Several cast members of MTV's have had lucrative endorsement deals, and in some cases their own product lines. , originally a contestant on Flavor of Love, was eventually given four additional reality series of her own on VH1. In Britain, became famous after appearing on in 2002; she later appeared on other reality programs, wrote a bestselling autobiography and launched a top-selling perfume line. She later received extensive media coverage during her battle with , from which she died in 2009. , who gained fame after appearing on several reality television shows, launched the successful brand Skinnygirl Cocktails, and got her own short-lived syndicated talk show, . Two cast members of non-athletic reality shows, (from The Real World and its spin-off, ) and (from ), became professional wrestlers for the WWE. Some reality-television alumni have parlayed their fame into paid public appearances.
In a rare case of a reality television alumnus succeeding in the political arena, cast member is a from . Businessman and television personality , who hosted from 2004 to 2015 and is currently a leading contender in the , could also be considered an example: though he was nationally-known before The Apprentice began, some commentators have credited his campaign success in part to the show, since it greatly increased his fame, and showcased him as a tough and experienced authority figure.
Several , or children of famous parents, who were somewhat well-known before they appeared on reality television shows have become much more famous as a result, including , , , and many of the rest of the family.
Reality television personalities are sometimes derided as " celebrities", "Bravolebrities", and/or "nonebrities" who are effectively "famous for being famous" and have done nothing to warrant their sudden fame. Some have been lampooned for exploiting an undeserved "". The Kardashian family is one such group of reality television personalities who were subject to this criticism in the 2010s, Kim Kardashian in particular.
In 2006, four of the ten most popular programs among viewers under 17 were reality shows. Studies have shown that young people emulate the behavior displayed on these programs, gathering much of their knowledge of the social world, particularly about consumer practices, from television. Many of the programs watched by teens contain questionable role models, in particular the representation of sexually objectified women in shows like .
In 2007, according to the , one in seven UK teenagers hoped to gain fame by appearing on reality television.
A number of studies have tried to pinpoint the appeal of reality television. Factors that have been cited in its appeal include personal identification with the onscreen participants; pure entertainment; diversion from scripted TV; vicarious participation; a feeling of self-importance compared to onscreen participants; enjoyment of competition; and an appeal to , especially given "scenes which take place in private settings, contain , and/or include gossip". Batya Ungar-Sargon, PhD believes reality TV's appeal comes from people taking pleasure in watching the suffering or humiliation of the show's protagonists.
Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india Similar works in popular culture Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A number of fictional works since the 1940s have contained elements similar to elements of reality television. They tended to be set in a future, with subjects being recorded against their will, and often involved violence.
- "The Seventh Victim" (1953) was a short story by science fiction author that depicted a futuristic game in which one player gets to hunt down another player and kill him. The first player who can score ten kills wins the grand prize. This story was the basis for the Italian film (1965).
- , a 1955 short story by , is about a man who discovers that he is an actor in a "livie", a live-action show that is viewed by billions of people in the future.
- , a 1957 film written and directed by has the main character, a fictional European monarch portrayed by Chaplin, secretly filmed while talking to people at a New York cocktail party. The footage is later turned into a television show within the film.
- "The Prize of Peril" (1958), another Robert Sheckley story, was about a television show in which a contestant volunteers to be hunted for a week by trained killers, with a large cash prize if he survives. It was adapted in 1970 as the TV movie Das Millionenspiel, and again in 1983 as the movie .
- 's novel Golk (1960) was about a hidden-camera show similar to Candid Camera.
- "It Could Be You" (1964), a short story by Australian Frank Roberts, features a day-in-day-out televised blood sport.
- Survivor (1965), a science fiction story by Walter F. Moudy, depicted the 2050 "Olympic War Games" between Russia and the United States. The games are fought to show the world the futility of war and thus deter further conflict. Each side has one hundred soldiers who fight in a large natural arena. The goal is for one side to wipe out the other; the few who survive the battle become heroes. The games are televised, complete with color commentary discussing tactics, soldiers' personal backgrounds, and slow-motion replays of their deaths.
- "" (1968) was an episode of the science fiction television series in which the crew visits a planet resembling the , but with 20th-century technology. The planet's "Empire TV" features regular games, with the announcer urging viewers at home to vote for their favorites, stating, "This is your program. You pick the winner."
- (1968) was a television play in which a dissident in a dictatorship is forced onto a secluded island and taped for a reality show in order to keep the masses entertained.
- (1973), a novel by (also published as The Continuous Katherine Mortenhoe), was about a woman dying of cancer whose last days are recorded without her knowledge for a television show. It was later adapted as the 1980 movie .
- "Ladies And Gentlemen, This Is Your Crisis" (1976) was a short story by science fiction author about a television show in which contestants (including a B-list actress who is hoping to revitalize her career) attempt to make their way to a checkpoint after being dropped off in the Alaskan wilderness, while being filmed and broadcast around the clock through an entire weekend. The story focuses primarily on the show's effect on a couple whose domestic tensions and eventual reconciliation parallel the dangers faced by the contestants.
- (1976) includes a subplot in which network executives negotiate with an urban terrorist group for the production of a weekly series, each episode of which was to feature an act of terrorism.
- (1982) was a book by depicting a game show in which a contestant flees around the world from "hunters" trying to chase him down and kill him; it has been speculated that the book was inspired by 's The Prize of Peril. The book was loosely adapted as a . The movie removed most of the reality-TV element of the book: its competition now took place entirely within a large television studio, and more closely resembled an athletic competition (though a deadly one).
- The film (1985), and the spin-off television series , revolved around television mainly based on live, often candid, broadcasts. In one episode of Max Headroom, "Academy", the character Blank Reg fights for his life on a courtroom game show, with the audience deciding his fate.
- (1985) was an episode of the television show in which the population of a planet watches live television broadcasts of the torture and executions of those who oppose the government. The planet's political system is based on the leaders themselves facing disintegration if the population votes 'no' to their propositions.
Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india Pop culture references Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Some scripted and written works have used reality television as a plot device:
- (2002) is a horror/slasher film that takes place in a wired house full of surveillance cameras. Each "contestant" is recorded as they attempt to survive and solve the mystery of the murders.
- (2006) is a film set partially on an American Idol-like show.
- (1999) was a remake of .
- (1994) is a film about a man who signs up to star in a 24-hour-a-day reality television show.
- (1979) is a comedic film about the creation of a show similar to gone horribly wrong.
- (2001) is a film about a reality show in which contestants have to kill each other to win.
- (1998) is a film about a man () who discovers that his entire life is being staged and filmed for a 24-hour-a-day reality television show.
- (2008) is a film in which a contestant on the Indian version of is interrogated because he knows all the answers.
- (2005) satirizes the indignity of reality television by presenting itself as "raw footage" of a new reality show documenting the attempted comeback of has-been star .
- is a British television programme featuring a zombie apocalypse affecting the house. Part of the film was shot during an actual eviction with host Davina McCall making a cameo appearance.
- (2008) is a British television show about two judges on a televised singing contest whose marriage is falling apart.
- (2006) is a comic novel by that parodies and , among other reality shows.
- (2001) is a comedy/ novel, also by Ben Elton, in which a contestant is murdered while on a Big Brother-like show.
- (2003), a speculative fiction novel by , occasionally makes mentions of the protagonist and his friend entertaining themselves by watching reality television shows of live executions, , frog , graphic surgery, and .
- L.A. Candy (2009) is a young adult novel series by , which is based on her experiences on Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County and The Hills.
Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india Other influences on popular culture Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A number of scripted television comedy and satire shows have adopted the format of the documentary-type reality television show, in "" style. The first such show was the BBC series , which premiered in 1997. Subsequent examples include (BBC UK, 1998), (ABC Australia, 1999), (2001), (2003), (2004), (2007), (2007), (2009), (2009), (2010) and (2015). Arguably the best-known and most influential "mockumentary" sitcom is the BBC's (2001), which spawned numerous international remakes, including a successful American version.
Not all reality-television-style mockumentary series are comedic: the 2013 American series has a science fiction/horror bent, while the 2014 Dutch series is a drama.
The 2013-2015 American series set most of its sketches as excerpts from various fictional reality television shows, which one critic wrote "aren't far off from the lineups at E!, Bravo, and VH1", and parodied those shows' participants' "lack of self-awareness". The show also satirized the often incestuous nature of reality television, in which some series lead to a cascade of spinoffs. Kroll Show writer John Levenstein said in an interview that reality TV "has so many tools for telling stories in terms of text and flashbacks and ways to show things to the audience that it's incredibly convenient for comedy and storytelling if you use the full reality show toolkit."
Some feature films have been produced that use some of the conventions of documentary film and/or reality television; such films are sometimes referred to as , and sometimes simply as documentaries. 's 1970 hidden camera movie was based on his reality-television show Candid Camera.
The television series has spawned five films: in 2001, in 2006, in late 2007, in 2010 and in 2013. A similar show, , was adapted for the film in 2006. The producers of The Real World created in 2003. The Chinese reality show was adapted for the 2015 film .
In 2007, broadcaster stated that reality television is "a firm and embedded part of television's vocabulary, used in every genre from game-shows and drama to news and current affairs."
The film genre, which began in the mid-2000s, and uses video cameras and relies heavily on improvisation and non-professional actors, has been described as influenced in part by what one critic called "the spring-break psychodrama of MTV's The Real World". Mumblecore director has said, "As annoying as reality TV is, it's been really good for filmmakers because it got mainstream audiences used to watching shaky camerawork and different kinds of situations."
Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india See also Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india References Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Most popular dating tv shows 2015 india Further reading Reality television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- - 's Spiked commentary
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